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Tools of torment 

10 gruesome objects designed for torture and punishment

These 10 chilling objects show how instruments of agony were designed and used to inflict brutal punishment over the centuries. 

Scavenger daughter demonstration with illustrated lady
Scavenger's daughter (1531-1570)(XV.5)

1. The Scavenger’s Daughter

Invented as an instrument of torture in the reign of Henry VIII by Sir Leonard Skeffington, Lieutenant of the Tower of London, the Scavenger’s Daughter was a ‘chief English sort of torture next after the rack’. By swinging the head down and forcing the knees up in a sitting position, the frame compressed the body until the ribs, breastbone and spine could be dislocated. The severe compression was said to have applied such pressure that ‘a quantity of blood [was] expelled from the mouth and nostrils’.

See the Scavenger's Daughter in our online collection.

Executioner's mask photographed against white background
Iron mask (1600-1799) (XVIII.39)

2. Executioner’s Mask

During the 19th century, this strange iron mask was exhibited in the Tower of London alongside the famed block and axe and described as an ‘executioner’s mask’. However, it is improbable that an executioner would have worn an iron mask and the item’s grotesque appearance makes it more likely part of an elaborate scold’s bridle. The mask is roughly made of three plates, with openings for eyes, nostrils and mouth.

See the executioner's mask in our online collection. 

The Danzig handgun photographed against white background
The Danzig Handgun (XII.11833)

3. The Danzig Handgun

This early German handgun dates from around 1350-1430 and is decorated with many faces. Firearms of this period are extremely rare and decorated examples even more so. Such a piece must have been commissioned by someone of considerable means. The depiction of a bearded face in relief is a feature of the High Gothic period and is also found, for example, on contemporary stoneware. It has been suggested that such faces stem from superstitious belief and serve a protective function (from the ‘Green Man‘ to the later Bellarmine jars used to create witch bottles). The only similar piece known to exist resides in the Swedish National Historical Museum and is known as the ‘Mörkö’ gun.

See the Danzig handgun in our online collection. 

Contents of vampire killing kit photographed in box
A cased vampire killing kit (XII.11811)

4. Vampire Killing Kit

The belief in real vampires is age-old and even persists to the present day. As recently as 2004, a Romanian family exhumed the body of a relative, cut out his heart with scythe and pitchfork, and burned it. This was a continuation of folklore that existed elsewhere in Eastern Europe for centuries.

The business of killing vampires was deadly serious, as evidenced by this vampire killing kit which was acquired by the museum in 2012. The kit includes a crucifix, stakes, a mallet, rosary, a prayer book, and a pistol along with a range of other items to ward off or kill vampires according to the appropriate methods. Historically, iron implements like knives, nails, skewers, ploughshares and scythes could be used to ‘stake’ the body or to remove the heart. Decapitation and/or dismemberment was another common method, but rarely was a specialist weapon used. Next to the simple wooden stake, the sexton’s or grave digger’s spade would have been the preferred vampire-slaying weapon. If these measures were insufficient, the heart would be removed and burned, and/or the entire corpse would be cremated. 

See the vampire killing kit in our online collection. 

Engraving showing the murder of the princes in the Tower
Engraving of the murder of the princes (I.1627)

5. Engraving of The Princes in the Tower

Purchased from Old Church Galleries in 2002, this engraving depicts the murder of the princes in the Tower by smothering. The disappearance of Edward V and Richard of Shrewsbury (12 and 9) in the summer of 1483, following the death of their father, King Edward IV of England, remains unsolved. It is widely speculated that they were murdered, with suspicion often falling on their uncle, King Richard III, who later took the throne.

See the engraving in our online collection. 

Gibbet photographed hanging off a stone wall
A gibbet used between 1700 and 1799.

6. The Gibbet

The gibbet was used for the public exhibition of the bodies of criminals and traitors after their execution. The intention was to instil fear in the public by making an example of wrongdoers. It is said that there were so many gibbets in London, there was hardly any street in which you could not hear one creaking as it swung. Anthony Wood recorded that on 15 March 1680 ‘Thomas Hovell that killed John White was hanged on a gallows against Balliol College gate: died very penitent and hanged there till two or three in the afternoon’.

Executioner's sword showing engraving on blade
Executioner's sword (IX.728)

7. Executioner’s sword engraved blade, 1674

Execution by sword was uncommon in England. Anne Boleyn was the only famous prisoner at the Tower of London to die in this way because she requested it. It was, however, the normal form of decapitation on the continent. Many surviving execution swords are actually swords of justice carried before the judge to indicate his power of life and death. The details on this engraved sword, which dates from the 17th century and is of German origin, show an inscription of lines from a Lutheran hymn, which may be translated as: ‘I live and know not for how long; I die I know not when; I wander I know not whither; I wonder that I am so contented’.

See the executioner's sword in our online collection.

Scold's Bridle sat on table
Scold's Bridle (XV.12)

8. Scold’s Bridle or Brank

Traditionally, these instruments were used to punish scolds or gossips. They were specifically used against women as a means of ridicule and humiliation in order to control their behaviour. The first (right) example, which dates from the 17th century, consists of a simple iron frame for the head, padlocked at the back, and with a serrated iron tongue for insertion into the mouth, making it both painful and effective. The second (left), more elaborate bridle with a bell is German, likely dating from the 17th century.

See the Scold's Bridle in our online collection. 

Axe resting against block on cobbled street
Executioner's Block and Axe (XV.3)

9. Executioner's block

The surviving block, which is made from elm and weighs 56.75 kg, has two concavities at the top to take the head and the upper chest of the victim, leaving their head exposed. It was thought to be used for the execution of Simon, Lord Lovat, in 1747 and it may well have been made especially for that occasion. Two cuts on the surface of the wood suggest that either the headsman had a trial cut or that the block had been used before. The accompanying axe dates from the 16th century. Contrary to popular belief, it is not the axe with which Anne Boleyn was executed – a sword was used on the occasion.

See the executioner's block in our online collection. 

Iron collar photographed against white background
Iron Restraining Collar (XV.4)

10. Iron Torture Collar

This iron torture collar is believed to date from 16th century England. It is on display at the Tower of London. It is formed of two iron semi-circles, which lock together to form a collar. The spikes on the inside would have made for extremely uncomfortable wearing.

See the iron collar in our online collection.