There have always been arms and armour at the Tower. William the Conqueror’s castle, begun in 1066, must have contained a garrison of soldiers, and weapons are first documented in the reign of King John (1199-1216). By the reign of Edward III (1327-77) the Tower had become an arsenal to supply the English army and navy.
The Office of Ordnance emerged soon after 1400 and continued to provide weapons and equipment for British armed forces until the mid 19th century. Alongside the working arsenal, a museum began to take shape in the Tudor period. When Henry VIII came to the throne in 1509 he removed the medieval arms and armour and replaced them with up-to-date material. After his death the contents of armouries from other palaces, including some of Henry’s own equipment, came to the Tower and, in the 17th Century, during the English Civil Wars, a number of other royal armours were brought there from Greenwich Palace.
The Tower Armouries received their first recorded visitor in 1489 but at first only important visitors were admitted, by special permission. After the restoration of Charles II in 1660, the paying public was allowed in to marvel at new displays set up to celebrate the power and splendour of English monarchy.
These included the Spanish Armoury, containing instruments of torture and punishment and other items erroneously said to have been captured from the Spanish Armada. Another attraction was the Line of Kings, consisting of mounted armoured figures representing English monarchs and backed by displays of arms and armour. The wooden horses and heads of the kings were carved by some of the leading craftsmen of the day.
From 1696 the Grand Storehouse, newly completed on the north side of the Tower in 1692, housed two other exhibitions. On the first floor large numbers of the weapons in store were used to create the Small Armoury. The eye-catching patterns of weapons on walls and columns also reflected British military might. Similarly, numerous cannon captured by or used by British armed forces were shown in the Artillery Room on the ground floor.
Increasing scholarship in the early 19th century resulted not only in the redesign of the Line of Kings and Spanish Armoury but also the purchase of objects to augment the collections. In 1841, however, most of the material in the Grand Storehouse was unfortunately destroyed in a great fire.
After the demise of the Board of Ordnance in 1855 the Armouries passed to the War Office, and Ordnance buildings were pulled down as the Tower was restored to a ‘medieval’ appearance. In 1904 the Armouries was transferred to the care of the Office of Works. Between the world wars it became a national museum, and in 1985 Her Majesty consented that it should be named the Royal Armouries.
In 1996 a large part of the collection transferred to a new museum site in Leeds, Yorkshire, the galleries within the Tower being redesigned to tell the story of the Armouries in the Tower, the oldest museum in England.
Harry Brearley, chief metallurgist of Thomas Firth & Sons of Sheffield, England, discovers martensitic chromium stainless steel in 1913 while seeking a corrosion-resistant alloy for gun barrels for the British Government.