Interactive timeline - Conflict
Battle of Plataea
Final major battle of the Greco-Persian Wars; ending the expansion of the Persian Empire into Greece.
Battle of 'Ain Jalut
'Ayn Jalut was a major world event. The first time a Mongol army was defeated in open battle.
Battle of Crécy
First land victory of the '100 Years War' for English infantry over French mounted knights.
Siege of Constantinople
The fall of Constantinople was the first great siege won with gunpowder artillery.
Battle of Pavia
First significant victory by infantry with firearms over fully armoured knights on the battlefield.
Battle of Panipat
A traditional Indian army with war elephants is beaten by artillery and infantry musketeers.
Defeat of Spanish Armada
Spain's attempt to invade England ended when English ships with superior guns defeated its Armada.
Battle of Sekigahara
100 years of civil war ends. Shogun Tokugawa Ieyasu's dynasty rules Japan for the next 250 years.
Battle of Naseby
Charles I defeated. He is arrested, tried and executed. Parliament rules England as a republic.
Battle of Waterloo
Wellington described Napoleon's defeat as a 'close run thing'. The battle's outcome shaped Europe.
The Royal Armouries encourages research into arms and armour and related subjects from all periods of history from antiquity to the present day.