Close up of the yellow metal spectacles from Henry VIII's horned helmet.

The horned helmet

Dates from 1511–14 | Austrian, Innsbruck | Object number: IV.22

YouTube link to Horned Helmet This helmet originally formed part of the court armour of Holy Roman Emperor Maximilian I and was made by Konrad Seusenhofer.

Holy Roman Emperor Maximilian I presented Henry VIII with the armour that included this extraordinary ‘Horned helmet’ in 1514. This helmet was chosen as the symbol of the Royal Armouries in Leeds because of its extraordinary appearance and association with Henry VIII.

The full armour from which the ‘Horned helmet’ originates was one of three of similar design. Only the armour given by Maximilian I to his grandson, the future Emperor Charles V, survives intact and it is now in Vienna.

The rest of Henry VIII’s armour no longer survives and for some time after Henry’s death this helmet was believed to have belonged to his jester or fool, Will Somers, because of its unusual nature.

Konrad Seusenhofer, the maker of Henry VIII’s gift armour, was one of the leading armourers of the early 16th century. The ‘dragon’ hinges, left and right, suggest that alternative face defences were also supplied. It was made for use in pageants rather than for combat. Henry VIII might have worn it at sumptuous events such as the parades that accompanied tournaments.

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Mass-produced steel

The first mass-production process for making steel was invented by Englishman Henry Bessemer. Rejected by the British his process was adopted by the German gunmaker Alfred Krupp, who became the most advanced armaments manufacturer in Europe.

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